State law still demands that a human sit behind the wheel while the car is in operation. A human operator can suspend the system by simply pressing the brake.
The license was issued after Nevada Department of Motor Vehicle officials rode in the self-controlled cars during road tests, the Las Vegas Sun reported.
Eight test cars, including six Priuses, an Audi and a Lexus, will be deployed on Nevada roads to continue testing of the system.
Each car has equipment that combines artificial intelligence, numerous sensors to detect changes in the road, and an advanced satellite based navigation system.
Google plans to develop the system for eventual use in mainstream vehicles.
Special license plates will make sure other motorists can identify the computer-controlled vehicles.